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ASSUMPTION INFERENCES

ASSUMPTION / INFERENCE SET-4

Q.1 Consider the following statements: All members of Tina’s family are engineers.2. Some members of Tina’s family are govt employees.3. No govt employee is corrupt. Which of the following conclusions can be drawn from the above statements? A) Some members of Tina’s family are corrupt.B) There are some engineers not from Tina’s family who are corrupt.C) Govt employees of Tina’s family are not corrupt.D) No engineer is corrupt.   Q.2 Examine the following statements: Every man should have his identity card with him. The card should mention his blood group, complete address and telephone number to contact in case of emergencies.Which of the following conclusions follows from the above statements? The authorities need this information, especially in case of accidents.2. No one should forget his telephone number under any circumstances. A) Only 1 follows.B) Only 2 follows.C) Both 1 and 2 follow.D) Neither 1 nor 2 follows.   Q.3 Examine the following statements: Since govt officials know how hard it is to fire them, they tend to loaf.This goes a long way in explaining why the govt is so inefficient. Which of the following conclusions follows from the above statements? Too much job security can decrease productivity.2. A number of govt officials should be fired.A) Only 1 follows.B) Only 2 follows.C) Both 1 and 2 follow.D) Neither 1 nor 2 follows.   Q.4 Examine the following statement: A great example of India’s glorious past is the popularity of Ayurvedic medicines in the West. Which of the following conclusions follows from the above statement? Ayurvedic medicines are unpopular in India.2. Western medicine still is more popular than Ayurveda in the West. A) Only 1 follows.B) Only 2 follows.C) Both 1 and 2 follow.D) Neither 1 nor 2 follows.   Q.5 Examine the following statement: The first step in treating addicts is to re-establish their lost ties, for which a continuous personal attention should be paid to the addicts under treatment. Two assumptions numbered 1 and 2 are given below. Which of them is/are implicitly understood from the above statement? Addicts under treatment respond better when shown personal interest.2. Addiction causes relationships to strain. A) Only assumption 1 is implicit.B) Only assumption 2 is implicit.C) Both assumptions are implicit.D) Neither assumption is implicit.  

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ASSUMPTION / INFERENCE SET-3

Q.1 Examine the information given below: If the value of the Indian rupee goes on decreasing like this in the international markets, then India will face an economic crisis like Europe, and the person responsible for it will be the lazy and greedy politician.Which of the following is a definite conclusion that can be drawn from the above information? A) International markets are facing an economic meltdown.B) Europe has recovered from an economic crisis.C) Consolidation of the Indian rupee will present an economic crisis.D) It is too late and even politicians cannot do anything about it now.   Q.2 Examine the statements given below: All industries require intellectual.Good institutions provide intellectuals.Many famous personalities are alumni of good institutions.Students of good institutions get good placements. Which of the following is a valid conclusion that can be drawn from the above statements?A) Institutions help industry to grow.B) Every famous personality studied at a good institution.C) All good placements come from good institutions.D) Studying at a good institution boosts one’s career.   Q.3 Examine the statements given below: All books of X publications in a library have copyright.Some of the library books are on history.X publication started the copyright after year 2005. Which of the following is a valid conclusion that can be drawn from the above statements? A) Some copyright history books in the library belong to X publication.B) All history books covering events from 2006 onwards have copyright.C) Books other than X publication do not have copyright.D) None of these   4 Consider the information given below: If the US attacks Syria to prevent Syria from developing a chemical weapon, Syria might get spurred to actually develop one and attack the US with it, leading to an all-out war.Which of the following is a definite conclusion that can be drawn from the above information? A) Syria will misuse a chemical weapon if it ever manages to develop one.B) Syria will stop the manufacture of a chemical weapon.C) Misuse of chemical weapons will lead to war.D) The US is going to attack Syria.   Read the following : All good sportsmen want to win and all sportsmen who want to win eat a balanced diet; therefore, all sportsmen who do not eat a balanced diet are bad sportsmen.Q.5 Which of the following, if true, would refute the assumptions of the argument above? A) A, the sprinter, wants to win, but he is not a good sportsman.B) B, the officer, eats a balanced diet, but is not a good sportsman.C) All the players of a basketball team eat a well-balanced diet.D) C, a cricketer, does not eat a well balanced diet, but is a good sportsman.   Q.6 If the assumptions of the above argument are true, which of the following statements has to be true? A) No bad sportsman wants to win.B) No sportsman who does not eat a well balanced diet is a good sportsman.C) Every sportsman is a good sportsman if he eats a well balanced diet.D) All athletes who want to win are good athletes.  

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ASSUMPTION / INFERENCE SET-2

READ THE FOLLOWING PARAGRAPH: The Dvorak keyboard requires less finger movement than the ubiquitous QWERTY keyboard,. As a result, Dvorak keyboard users are not only able to type more words per minute, but are also less vulnerable to both repetitive stress disorder and carpal tunnel syndrome. Nonetheless, businesses, as well as consumers, have not adopted the Dvorak keyboard. Clearly, if the Dvorak keyboard is to become more widely used, its benefits must be more widely touted. Q.1. Which of the following, if true, most threatens the author’s conclusion?(A) The initial cost of manufacturing a Dvorak keyboard will be more expensive than that of a QWERTY keyboard.(B) Many who have attempted using a Dvorak keyboard claim that learning the configuration of keys takes weeks(C) Those suffering from repetitive stress injuries often attribute the injuries to multiple factors(D) Businesses that have educated employees on the benefits of the Dvorak keyboard, have found that employees continue to use the Qwerty keyboard   Q.2 Which of the following is an assumption upon which the author’s claim rests?(A) When deciding between two options, consumers and businesses do not opt for the solution that has fewer negative effects.(B) People’s reluctance to transition to the Dvorak keyboard does not have multiple factors.(C) Dvorak keyboards require users to relearn the configurations of the keyboard, a potentially time-consuming process(D) The Dvorak keyboard can only become a viable alternative if businesses require their employees to no longer use QWERTY keyboards. 3.The media claim that the economy is entering a phase of growth and prosperity. They point to lower unemployment rates and increased productivity. This analysis is false, though. The number of people filing for bankruptcy has increased every month for the last six months, and bankruptcy lawyers report that they are busier than they have been in years. Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?(A) Unemployment rates are not useful indicators of growth and prosperity.(B) Economic growth cannot be measured in terms of productivity.(C) Legislation has not been recently passed to make legal bankruptcy easier to obtain.(D) There has not been an increase in the number of bankruptcy lawyers. Having an efficient, attractive subway system makes good economic sense. So, the city needs to purchase new subway cars, since the city should always do what makes good economic sense.The conclusion drawn above follows logically if which one of the following is assumed?(A) The city should invest in an efficient, attractive subway system.(B) Cost-effective subway cars are an integral part of an efficient subway system.(C) New subway cars are financially affordable.(D) New subway cars are required in order for the city to have a subway system that is efficient and attractive. In his new book on his complex scientific research, R frequently imputes bad faith to researchers disagreeing with him. A troubling aspect of R’s book is his stated conviction that other investigators’ funding sources often determine what “findings” those investigators report. Add to this that R has often shown himself to be arrogant, overly ambitious, and sometimes plain nasty, and it becomes clear that R’s book does not merit attention from serious professionals.The author of the book review commits which one of the following reasoning errors?(A) using an attack on the character of the writer of athe book as evidence that this person is not competent on matters of scientific substance(B) taking it for granted that an investigator is unlikely to report findings that are contrary to the interests of those funding the investigation(C) dismissing a scientific theory by giving a biased account of it(D) failing to distinguish between the criteria of being true and of being sufficiently interesting to merit attention Archaeologist: A skeleton of a North American mastodon that became extinct at the peak of the Ice Age was recently discovered. It contains a human-made projectile dissimilar to any found in that part of Eurasia closest to North America. Thus, since Eurasians did not settle in North America until shortly before the peak of the Ice Age, the first Eurasian settlers in North America probably came from a more distant part of Eurasia.Which one of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the archaeologist’s argument?(A) The projectile found in the mastodon does not resemble any that were used in Eurasia before or during the Ice Age.(B) The people who occupied the Eurasian area closest to North America remained nomadic throughout the Ice Age(C) The skeleton of a bear from the same place and time as the mastodon skeleton contains a similar projectile.(D) Climatic conditions in North America just before the Ice Age were more conducive to human habitation than were those in the part of Eurasia closest to North America at that time.    

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ASSUMPTION / INFERENCE SET-1

Q.1 Throughout the ages the businessman has helped build civilisation’s great cities, provided people with luxuries and artists with patronage, and lift his fellow citizens to understand the standard of living. In the last few centuries the businessman has seeded the Industrial Revolution around the world :The passage best supports the statement that the businessman :A) Has contributed to the growth of civilizationB) Is capable of raising his standard of livingC) Is accountable to the societyD) Is the beneficiary of the Industrial Revolution   Q.2 There is a shift in our economy from a manufacturing to a service orientation. The increase in service-sector will require the managers to work more with people rather than with objects and things from the assembly lineThis passage best supports the statement that :A) Interpersonal skills will become more important in the future work place.B) Manufacturing organisations ignore importance of peopleC) Managers should have a balanced mindD) Assembly line will exist in service organizations   Q.3 It is up to our government and planners to devise ways and means for the mobilisation of about ten crore workers whose families total up about forty crore men, women and children. Our agriculture is over-manned. A lesser number of agriculturists would mean more purchasing or spending power to every agriculturist. This will result in the shortage of man-power for many commodities to be produced for which there will be a new demand from a prosperous agrarian class. This shortage will be removed by surplus man-power released from agriculture as suggested above.The passage best supports the statement thatA) Indian economy is in a poor shape basically due to improper mobilisation of man-powerB) The industrial sector is labour-deficient while the agricultural sector is over-manned in our countryC) A shift of labour from agricultural sector to the industrial sector would uplift the living standardD) Employment in production is more fruitful than employment in agriculture   Q .4 To forgive an injury is often considered to be a sign of weakness; it is really a sign of strength. It is easy to allow oneself to be carried away by resentment and hate into an act of vengeance; but it takes a strong character to restrain those natural passions. The man who forgives an injury proves himself to be the superior of the man who wronged himself and puts the wrong-doer to shame. The passage best supports’ the statement that :A) Mercy is the noblest form of revengeB) A person with calm and composed nature has depth of thought and visionC) Natural passions are difficult to suppressD) The sufferer alone knows the intensity of his sufferings   Q.5 The prevention of accidents makes it necessary not only that safety devices be used to guard exposed machinery but also that mechanics be instructed in safety rules which they must follow for their own protection, and that lighting in the plant be adequate. The passage best supports the statement that industrial accidents :A) Can be eliminated with the help of safety rulesB) Are always avoidableC) Usually result from inadequate machineryD) may be due to ignorance   Q.6 The press should not be afraid of upholding and supporting a just and righteous cause. It should not be afraid of criticising the government in a healthy manner. The press has to be eternally vigilant to protect the rights of the workers, backward and suppressed sections of the society. It should also give a balanced view of the things so that people can be helped in the formation of a healthy public opinion. The passage best supports the statement that :A) The freedom of press is essential for the proper functioning of democracyB) All the information given by the press should be well-articulated so as to gain a good opinion towards the ruling partyC) Press has a great role to play in a democracyD) The press is the only means to project to the masses the policies of the government   Q.7 Exports and imports, a swelling favourable balance of trade, investments and bank-balances, are not an index or a balance sheet of national prosperity. Till the beginning of the Second World War, English exports were noticeably greater than what they are today. And yet England has greater national prosperity today than it ever had. Because the income of average Englishmen, working as field and factory labourers, clerks, policemen, petty shopkeepers and shop assistants, domestic workers and other low-paid workers, has gone up. The passage best supports the statement that :A) English trade has continually increased since the Second World WarB) A country’s balance of trade is the main criteria of determining its economic prosperityC) A country’s economic standard can be best adjudged by per capital incomeD) A nation’s economy strengthens with the increase in exports    

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