READ THE FOLLOWING PARAGRAPH: The Dvorak keyboard requires less finger movement than the ubiquitous QWERTY keyboard,. As a result, Dvorak keyboard users are not only able to type more words per minute, but are also less vulnerable to both repetitive stress disorder and carpal tunnel syndrome. Nonetheless, businesses, as well as consumers, have not adopted the Dvorak keyboard. Clearly, if the Dvorak keyboard is to become more widely used, its benefits must be more widely touted.
Q.1. Which of the following, if true, most threatens the author’s conclusion?
(A) The initial cost of manufacturing a Dvorak keyboard will be more expensive than that of a QWERTY keyboard.
(B) Many who have attempted using a Dvorak keyboard claim that learning the configuration of keys takes weeks
(C) Those suffering from repetitive stress injuries often attribute the injuries to multiple factors
(D) Businesses that have educated employees on the benefits of the Dvorak keyboard, have found that employees continue to use the Qwerty keyboard
Q.2 Which of the following is an assumption upon which the author’s claim rests?
(A) When deciding between two options, consumers and businesses do not opt for the solution that has fewer negative effects.
(B) People’s reluctance to transition to the Dvorak keyboard does not have multiple factors.
(C) Dvorak keyboards require users to relearn the configurations of the keyboard, a potentially time-consuming process
(D) The Dvorak keyboard can only become a viable alternative if businesses require their employees to no longer use QWERTY keyboards.
3.The media claim that the economy is entering a phase of growth and prosperity. They point to lower unemployment rates and increased productivity. This analysis is false, though. The number of people filing for bankruptcy has increased every month for the last six months, and bankruptcy lawyers report that they are busier than they have been in years. Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?
(A) Unemployment rates are not useful indicators of growth and prosperity.
(B) Economic growth cannot be measured in terms of productivity.
(C) Legislation has not been recently passed to make legal bankruptcy easier to obtain.
(D) There has not been an increase in the number of bankruptcy lawyers.
Having an efficient, attractive subway system makes good economic sense. So, the city needs to purchase new subway cars, since the city should always do what makes good economic sense.
The conclusion drawn above follows logically if which one of the following is assumed?
(A) The city should invest in an efficient, attractive subway system.
(B) Cost-effective subway cars are an integral part of an efficient subway system.
(C) New subway cars are financially affordable.
(D) New subway cars are required in order for the city to have a subway system that is efficient and attractive.
In his new book on his complex scientific research, R frequently imputes bad faith to researchers disagreeing with him. A troubling aspect of R’s book is his stated conviction that other investigators’ funding sources often determine what “findings” those investigators report. Add to this that R has often shown himself to be arrogant, overly ambitious, and sometimes plain nasty, and it becomes clear that R’s book does not merit attention from serious professionals.
The author of the book review commits which one of the following reasoning errors?
(A) using an attack on the character of the writer of athe book as evidence that this person is not competent on matters of scientific substance
(B) taking it for granted that an investigator is unlikely to report findings that are contrary to the interests of those funding the investigation
(C) dismissing a scientific theory by giving a biased account of it
(D) failing to distinguish between the criteria of being true and of being sufficiently interesting to merit attention
Archaeologist: A skeleton of a North American mastodon that became extinct at the peak of the Ice Age was recently discovered. It contains a human-made projectile dissimilar to any found in that part of Eurasia closest to North America. Thus, since Eurasians did not settle in North America until shortly before the peak of the Ice Age, the first Eurasian settlers in North America probably came from a more distant part of Eurasia.
Which one of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the archaeologist’s argument?
(A) The projectile found in the mastodon does not resemble any that were used in Eurasia before or during the Ice Age.
(B) The people who occupied the Eurasian area closest to North America remained nomadic throughout the Ice Age
(C) The skeleton of a bear from the same place and time as the mastodon skeleton contains a similar projectile.
(D) Climatic conditions in North America just before the Ice Age were more conducive to human habitation than were those in the part of Eurasia closest to North America at that time.