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Q.1 With reference to the ancient period, which among the following is/are correctly matched ?

1. Auqaf       –       Charitable trusts

2. Inam        –       Tax free land

3. Sama        –       immediate requirements such as food, clothes, living quarters and ritual  necessities

Which among the above is/are correct ?

A) 1 & 3

B) 2 & 3

C) 1,2,3

D) Only 2

Ans. C

Q.2 With reference to the ancient history, which among the following was/were the characteristics of ancient temples ?

1. The early temple was a small square room, called the garbhagriha, with a single doorway for the worshipper to enter and offer worship to the image

2. Tall structure i.e. shikhara, was built over the central shrine.

3. Assembly halls, huge walls and gateways, and arrangements for supplying water

Which among the above is/are correct ?

A) Only 3

B) 1 & 3

C) 2 & 3

D) 1,2,3

Ans. D

Q.3 With reference to the ancient rural society, which among the following is/are correctly matched ?

1. Vellalar    –       Large landowners

2. Uzhavar     –       Ploughmen

3. Adimai      –       Slaves

Which among the above is/are correct ?

A) 1 & 3

B) Only 2

C) 2 & 3

D) 1,2,3

Ans. D

Important point :

Gahapati was the owner, master or head of a household, who exercised control over the women, children, slaves and workers who shared a common residence. He was also the owner of the resources – land, animals and other things – that belonged to the household. Sometimes the term was used as a marker of status for men belonging to the urban elite, including wealthy merchants.

Q.4 With reference to the ancient History, what were Saddle querns ?

A) Grinding equipment for food

B) Equipment used for Irrigation

C) Used for manufacturing of bricks in an ancient India

D) Used for spinning of clothes

Ans. A

Processing of food required grinding equipment as well as vessels for mixing, blending and cooking. These were made of stone, metal and terracotta. This is an excerpt from one of the earliest reports on excavations at Mohenjodaro, the best-known Harappan site.

They were made of hard, gritty, Igneous rocks or sandstone.

Q.5 Statements:

1) Lomash rishi & Sudama caves in the barabar hills modeled on wooden architectural prototypes are example of the earliest cave architecture in India.

2) Barabar hills caves were dedicated by Chandragupta Maurya to Ajivika monks

Codes:

A) Only 1

B) Only 2

C) Both are correct

D) Both are incorrect

Ans. A

*The Barabar Caves are the oldest surviving rock-cut caves in India, mostly dating from the Mauryan period (322–185 BCE), and some with Ashokan inscriptions, located in the Bela Ganj Block of Gaya District of Bihar, India, 24 km north of Gaya.

*These caves are situated in the twin hills of Barabar (four caves) and Nagarjuni (three caves) – caves of the 1.6 km distant Nagarjuni Hill sometimes are singled out as Nagarjuni Caves.

*These rock-cut chambers date back to the 3rd century BC, Maurya period, of Ashoka (r. 273 BC to 232 BC.) and his son, Dasaratha. Though Buddhists themselves, they allowed various Jainsects to flourish under a policy of religious tolerance.

*These caves were used by ascetics from the Ajivika sect, founded byMakkhali Gosala, a contemporary of Siddhartha Gautama, the founder of Buddhism, and of Mahavira, the last and 24thTirthankara of Jainism. Also found at the site several rock-cut Buddhist and Hindu sculptures.

*Most caves at Barabar consist of two chambers, carved entirely out of granite, with a highly polished internal surface and exciting echo effect. The first chamber was meant for worshippers to congregate in a large rectangular hall, and the second, a small, circular, domed chamber for worship, this inner chamber probably had a small stupa like structure, at some point, though they are now empty.

Q.6 In context with the Bharatnatyam, which among the following statements are correct ?

1) This form of dance has no words but is composed of pure dance sequences characterized by variety of moods

2) Bharatnatyam leans heavily on the abhinaya followed by movement & mime

3) Jatiswaram , Shabdam, Varnam & Tillana are the forms of Bharatnatyam

Codes:

A) 1 & 3

B) 2 & 3

C) 1 & 2

D) 1,2,3

Ans. D

Bharatnatyam originates in Tamil Nadu which is also referred to as artistic yoga and Natya yoga. The name Bharatnatyam is derived from the word “Bharata” and thus associated with the Natyashastra. Though the style of Bharatnatyam is over two thousand years old, the freshness and richness of its essence has been retained even today. The technique of human movement which Bharatnatyam follows can be traced back to the fifth Century A.D. from sculptural evidence. This classical dance has a mesmerizing effect as it uplifts the dancer and the beholder to a higher level of spiritual consciousness. It is a dancing style that comprises of Bhava, Raga, Tala, and Natya which reflect the real meaning of the Bharatnatyam.

Bharatanatyam is arguably the oldest and most traditional classical dance style which seemas a synthesis of philosophy, sculpture, music and literature. This dance got its name from Sage Bharata who wrote the Natya Shastra.

Bharatanatyam is an energetic dance from wherein the postures and balanced position, i.e. the weight of the body is placed squarely down the centre of the body. There is emphasis on the striking of the floor with the feet. There are jumps in the air as also pirouettes called bhramaris. There are movements done with the knees contacting the floor. These are called mandi adavus.

Bharatanatyam can be performed solo or in a group. The pure dance is called nritta and the expressive is nritya. The solo dancer uses various methods of story-telling to interpret the verses and stories she performs. The person who conducts the recital is called the natatuvanar,, who is generally the guru of the dancer. He or the plays the cymbals called nattuvangam. The other musicians are the vocalist, the mridangist or percussion player, of flutist, a violinist and a veena player.

One of the greatest performers of Bharatanatyam has been Balasaraswati who was influential in popularising the dance as much as Rukmini Devi Arundale. Balasaraswati was famous for her soulful renderings of abhinaya or mimetic piece, in which she not only danced but sang as well.

The Steps & Performance

Bharatanatyam is always performed with the knees of the dancers bent. The dance form emphasizes on the hand movements to convey different kinds of emotions to the spectator. While performing Bharatanatyam, the artist visualizes his/her body as made up of triangles. The steps of the dance are based upon a balanced distribution of body weight and firm positions of the lower limbs, allowing the hands to cut into a line, to flow around the body, or to take positions that enhance the basic form. In order to perform Bharatnatyam, the artist should have the knowledge of the numerous subtle features of the dance style.

Four Techniques:

Karanas

Described in Natya Shastra, Karanas are defined as the 108 key transitional movements of Bharatanatyam that also feature in other classical da nce forms of India. Karana is a Sanskrit word, meaning ‘doing’. Classical dancer Padma Subramanyam is well known for her interpretation of Karanas, which predominantly includes the leg, hip, body and arm movements complemented by hasta mudras, as described in the Natya Shastra.

Hastas

The use of expressive hand gestures is a highlighting feature of Bharatanatyam. As the name suggests, hastas are the wide variety of hand symbols used by the performer. Some of the most well known hand gestures of the dance form include Anjali, which is used as a symbol of salutation, when a person greets his/her fellow dancer. Hastas are broadly divided into two types – Asamyukta and Samyukta.

Adavus

Adavus is defined as a series of steps in Bharatanatyam. The execution of the steps is different from style to style. The 108 principals of adavus are recognized by most schools of Bharatanatyam. As many as 60 adavus are used by many professional dancers. Jathis is the combination of adavus and forms the Nritta passages in a Bharatanatyam performance.

Bhedas , Eye & Neck Movements

Bharatanatyam is considered incomplete without bhedas and the expressive eye movements of the performer. Neck and eye movements are used extensively in the dance form. The shiro bheda (head movements) comprises of Sama, Udhvahita, Adhomukha, Alolita,Dhutam, Kampitam, Paravruttam, Utkshiptam and Parivahitam.

Theme of Bharatnatyam

Bharatnatyam is a solo, feminine type of a dance, which is tender and erotic. The basic theme is love, where the female dancers usually perform as a devotion to the Supreme Being; or love of a mother for child. It epitomizes the adoration of lovers separated and reunited. This dance is considered to be a fire dance, where there is a mysterious display of the abstract element of fire in the human body.

Technique of Bharatnatyam

Among the various styles of Bharatnatyam the Pandanallur and the Vazhuvoor are more significant. Pandanallur style is characterized by its deep sitting positions; its slow Lasya padams, and difficult standing positions. Vazhuvoor is characterized by a static posture to break the monotony with rhythmical variety.

The technique of Bharatnatyam consists of Natya, Nritta and Nritya. Natya is the dramatic art which is the language of gestures, poses and mimes. Nritta includes the rhythmic and repetitive elements. The Nritya is a combination of Nritta and Natya. Abhinaya also is another technique. It is subtle with more spontaneous expressions.

The theme of Bharatnatyam comes alive through the zealous performances of the dancers. It is the combination of technique, styles and Abhinaya. It starts with an invocation to Lord Gnana Sabesar of Vazhuvoor. The themes are personalized depending on the dancer. The dancers need to posses ten essential attributes which include Agility, Steadiness, graceful lines, balance in pirouettes, glance, hard work, intelligence, devotion, good speech, and singing ability.

Dressing style

The commonly used style in bharatanatyam are the skirt (saree) style or the pyjama style. Dancers were costumes made of silk sarees with gold zari embroidery designs. The pleats in this costumes opens beautifully. When the dancer forms a particular posture especially ariamandi(half sitting) and muzhu mandi(full sitting).

Role of Music in Bharatnatyam

Music plays an important role in Bharatnatyam. The musical accompaniment of the Carnatic School predominates over the raga in the Nritta passages. The chief musical instruments used in Bharatnatyam are the Mridangam and a pair of Cymbals. The cymbals provide the timing and the Mridangam provides fractional measures of the broad beats. The dancer follows both. A tambura is also used to provide the scale for the refrain. The musical instruments used are Mridangam, Manjira, Vina, Violin, Kanjira, Surpeti, Venu and Tanpura. The costume consists of a richly embroidered dhoti of silk for both male and female dancers. There is a pleated or frilled cloth hanging from the waist to the knees which is laced over the Dhoti.

Q.7 Which among the following statements related to Kathakali are correct ?

1) Square and rectangular basic positions are commonly seen in Kathakali

2) Weight of the body is on the outer edges of the feet which are slightly bent and curved

3) It is characterized by facial expressions , movement of eye balls & lower eye lids

Codes:

A) 1 & 3

B) 2 & 3

C) 1 & 2

D) 1,2,3

Ans. D

Introduction

Kathakali is the most well known dance drama from the south Indian state of Kerala. The word Kathakali literally means “Story-Play”. It is known for its large, elaborate makeup and costumes. The elaborate costumes of Kathakali have become the most recognised icon for Kerala.

The themes of the Kathakali are religious in nature. They typically deal with the Mahabarat, the Ramayana and the ancient scriptures known as thePuranas. This is performed in a text which is generally Sanskritised Malayalam.

A Kathakali performance is a major social event. They generally start at dusk and go through out the night. Kathakali is usually performed only by men. Female characters are portrayed by men dressed in women’s costume. However, in recent years, women have started to become Kathakali dancers.

Kathakali has a long tradition. It dates back to the 17th century. It was given its present form by Mahakavi Vallathol Narayan Menon, who was the founder of the Kerala Kala Mandalam.

The actors rely very heavily on hand gesture to convey the story. These hand gestures, known as mudra, are common through out much of classical Indian dance.

Costume

The costume is the most distinctive characteristic of Kathakali. The makeup is very elaborate and the costumes are very large and heavy.

There are several kinds of costume. There are: Sathwika (the hero), Kathi (the villain), Minukku (females), and Thatti. These basic divisions are further subdivided in a way which is very well known to Malayali (Keralite) audiences. Each character is instantly recognisable by their characteristic makeup and costume.

The makeup is very elaborate. It is so elaborate that it is more like a mask than makeup in the usual sense. The materials that comprise the makeup is all locally available. The white is made from rice flour, the red is made from Vermilion (a red earth such as cinnabar). The black is made from soot. The colours are not merely decoration, but are also a means of portraying characters. For instance, red on the feet is used to symbolise evil character and evil intent.

Music

The music of Kathakali has some similarity to the larger body of South Indian classical music (Carnatic sangeet); however the instrumentation is decidedly different. Its local colour is strongly achieved by the use of instruments such as chenda, idakka, and shuddha madalam.

Q.8 Which among the following are correct?

1) The Sufis were critical of the dogmatic definitions & scholastic methods of interpreting the Quran & Sunna (tradition of prophet) adopted by the theologians.

2)The Sufis sought an interpretation of the Quran on the basis of their personal experience.

Codes:

A) Only 1

B) Only 2

C) Both are correct

D) Both are incorrect

Ans. C

Q.9 Consider the following statements :

1) Mandapams,Chawadis & Gopurams are the part of the Chola architecture

2) Dravidian architecture consists of temples with pyramid shaped towers and are constructed of sandstone, soapstone or granite.

Codes:

A) Only 1

B) Only 2

C) Both are correct

D) Both are incorrect

Ans. C

*Dravidian architecture was an architectural idiom that emerged in the Southern part of the Indian subcontinent or South India.

*It consists primarily of temples with pyramid shaped towers and are constructed of sandstone, soapstone or granite.

*Mentioned as one of three styles of temple building in the ancient book Vastu shastra, the majority of the existing structures are located in the Southern Indian states of Tamilnadu, Karnataka, Kerala, and Andhra pradesh.

*Various kingdoms and empires such as the Cholas, the Chera, the Pandyas, the Pallavas, the Gangas, the Rashtrakutas, the Chalukyas, the Hoysalas, and Vijayanagara Empire among others have made substantial contribution to the evolution of Dravidian architecture.

*This styled architecture can also be found in parts of North India, Northeastern and central Sri Lanka, Maldives, and various parts of Southeast Asia. Angkor Wat in Cambodia and Prambanan in Indonesia were built based on Dravida architecture.

*Chola style temples consist almost invariably of the three following parts, arranged in differing manners, but differing in themselves only according to the age in which they were executed:

*The porches or Mandapams, which always cover and precede the door leading to the cell.

*Gate-pyramids, Gopurams, which are the principal features in the quadrangular enclosures that surround the more notable temples.Gopurams are very common in dravidian temples.

Pillard halls (Chaultris or Chawadis) are used for many purposes and are the invariable accompaniments of these temples.

*Besides these, a temple always contains tanks or wells for water – to be used for sacred purposes or the convenience of the priests – dwellings for all the grades of the priesthood are attached to it, and other buildings for state or convenience.

Q.10 Statements:

1) Sculptures of the Gandhara school stylistically are typically linked to the Greeco-Roman & Parthian art of Iran

2) Earliest stone Buddha images in the Swat valley pre-dated the Kushana period which suggests that certain iconographic conventions were already well established in the pre-kushana period

Codes:

A) Only 1

B) Only 2

C) Both are correct

D) Both are incorrect

Ans. C

*Gandhara is noted for the distinctive Gandhāra style of Buddhist art, a consequence of merger of Greek, Syrian, Persian and Indian art traditions.

*The development of this form of art started in Parthian Period(50BC – 75AD).

*Gandhāran style flourished and achieved its peak during the Kushan period from 1st Century to 5th Century. It declined and suffered destruction after invasion of the White Huns in the 5th century.

*Style of Buddhist visual art that developed in what is now northwestern Pakistan and eastern Afghanistan between the 1st century BC and the 7th century AD.

*The style, of Greco-Roman origin, seems to have flourished largely during the Kushan dynasty and was contemporaneous with an important but dissimilar school of Kushan art at Mathura (Uttar Pradesh, India).

*The Gandhara region had long been a crossroads of cultural influences. During the reign of the Indian emperor Ashoka around 3rd century B.C., the region became the scene of intensive Buddhist missionary activity; and, in the 1st century AD, rulers of the Kushan empire, which included Gandhara, maintained contacts with Rome.

*In its interpretation of Buddhist legends, the Gandhara school incorporated many motifs and techniques from classical Roman art, including vine scrolls, cherubs bearing garlands, tritons, and centaurs.

*The basic iconography, however, remained Indian.The materials used for Gandhara sculpture were green phyllite and gray-blue mica schist, which, in general, belong to an earlier phase, and stucco, which was used increasingly after the 3rd century A.D.

*The sculptures were originally painted and gilded. Gandhara’s role in the evolution of the Buddha image has been a point of considerable disagreement among scholars. It now seems clear that the schools of Gandhara and Mathura each independently evolved its own characteristic depiction of the Buddha about the 1st century AD.

*The Gandhara school drew upon the anthropomorphic traditions of Roman religion and represented the Buddha with a youthful Apollo-like face, dressed in garments resembling those seen on Roman imperial statues.

*The Gandhara depiction of the seated Buddha was less successful.

*The schools of Gandhara and Mathura influenced each other, and the general trend was away from a naturalistic conception and toward a more idealized, abstract image.

*The Gandharan craftsmen made a lasting contribution to Buddhist art in their composition of the events of the Buddha’s life into set scenes. The Hellenistic influence was nowhere more dramatic than in Gandhara, a term now used to describe the school of semi-classical sculptures of Pakistan and Afghanistan in the early centuries of our era.

*Gandhara is the name of an ancient province and kingdom, which in classical times, was limited to a small region in ancient India.

*The province Gandhara included roughly northwestern India between the Khyber Pass and the Indus River and the region of the Kabul Valley in Afghanistan. However, art and architecture from the Gandharean School had been found as far north as the Oxus River found in the Punjab. In the sixth to fourth centuries BCE Gandhara was dominated under the Achaemenid Dynasty of Iran.

*The successors of Alexander the Great maintained themselves in Bactria and Gandhara from 322 BCE to about 50 BCE, however, as early as the second century BCE these Greek Dynasties were already overrun by peoples of both nomadic and Parthian-Iranian origin. Rejoined to India under the Maurya Dynasty, the Gandhara province became the object of intense missionary activity by the Buddhist emperor Asoka (reigned c. 273-232 BCE).

*He made Buddhism the state religion, enforced the Buddhist doctrine of nonviolence (ahimsa) and prohibited animal sacrifices.

*In the first century AD the Kushans, a tribe of Scythian stock from north China made themselves masters of Gandhara. Their rule, however, was interrupted by the invasion of the Persian King Shapur I in AD 242, and the Buddhist civilization of Gandhara was finally completely destroyed by the White Huns, the Hephthalites, in the sixth century.

*The disastrous invasion of the White Huns put an end to all further productive activity in the once flourishing Gandhara province. Little is known about this time period except from Chinese pilgrims who as early as the fifth century AD undertook the long and arduous journey to the Holy Land of Buddhism. Fa Hsien, who traveled through the Peshawar Valley shortly after AD 400 described that the Gandhara province flourished, and that Emperor Kanishka’s successors “were well cared for.” When his successor, Sung Yen, visited the region in 520, he reported that the country had been overrun by the Huns.

*A few years later he reported that the Huns had virtually expiated Buddhism, had destroyed monasteries and had slashed most of the population in Gandhara.

*A century later, when the famous Chinese pilgrim Hsuan-Tsang traveled through north-west India he found Gandhara in a ruined, depopulated state. He describes in his “Records of the Western Countries,” that ruined monasteries greeted him everywhere in the Peshawar Valley and reports of the terrible desolation of the once flourishing Buddhist centers.

*However, the final chapters of the Gandharan school has its setting in Kashmir and in remote centers such as Fondukistan and Afghanistan where artistic activity continued as late as the seventh century.

*Excavations have produced many statues, other artifacts and some monasteries. Unfortunately, there are no architectural monuments left intact in Gandhara only some structural remains and sculptured fragments.

*However, there is ample proof of active trade and cultural exchanges between the Mediterranean and the Kushan territories into China. Gandhara art is often referred to as the Graeco-or-Roman-Buddhist school.

*The founder of the School has been credited to the Kushan Emperor Kanishka (c. AD 129-160), because of his patronage to Buddhism, and his great artistic development.

*The character of Gandharan art is determined by the commercial relations between the Kushan and the Roman empires.

*The many archaeological discoveries of Alexandrian and Syrian workmanship at Taxila in the Punjab and Begram in the Kabul valley testify to the cultural and diplomatic connections with the Graeco-Roman West. Many artifacts, in particular sculptures, have survived and are now dispersed in major museums throughout the world.

*Evidence of Hellenistic art in the form of architecture had been noted on a number of temples from the city of Sirkap at Taxila, and on the tumbled columns of Ay Khanum’s administrative center.

*Although the presence of this material provides a Hellenistic back ground for Gandhara art, it was the introduction of foreign workers from the eastern centers of the Roman Empire that led to the creation of the first Buddhist sculptures.

*It is not surprising that the Kushans, a nomadic people without a tradition of monumental art, requested the service of skilled artisans to meet the architectural and sculptural requirements for the many Buddhist establishments.

*It can be assumed that the practice of importing foreign artisans continued from the days of Kanishka’s reign until the end of Buddhism in northwest India and the Punjab in the sixth to early seventh centuries.

*The majority of Gandharan art was, however, created by native craftsmen following the successive waves of foreign influences. The subject matter of Gandharan art was unquestionably Buddhist, while most motifs were of western Asiatic or Hellenistic origin.

*Mesopotamian motifs can be found on Persepolitan capitals; or, forms such as the Atlantis, garland-bearing Eros, and the semi-human creatures as the centaur and triton are part of the repertory of Hellenistic art and introduced by Roman Eurasian artists in the service of the Kushan court.

*The fantastic monsters, however, the sphinxes and griffins had already been assimilated by the ancient Indian schools. *Sculptures played a very decisive role in the Buddhist monasteries where they had been found in large quantities.

*Tall single statues were placed in chapels to be venerated by the monks and the faithful. Other large figures in high relief were placed with their back to the wall, and bass relief filled all manners of places and positions.

*The Gandhara schools is probably credited with the first representation of the Buddha in human form, the portrayal of Sakyamuni in his human shape, rather than shown as a symbol.

*Perhaps the school intended to create a human Bodhisattva, a representation of Prince Siddhartha, the Buddha Sakyamuni while still as a Bodhisattva.

*All early Bodhisattvas are shown in wearing turbans, jewelry, and muslin skirts, a costume that was an adaptation of the actual dress of Kushan and Indian nobles.

*The jewelry of these royal statues were a duplication of Hellenistic and Samatian gold, created by Western artisans. A definite borrowing from Roman art was the method of representing the story of the Buddhas legend in a series of separate episodes and panels. This was accomplished in much the same way than the pictorial iconography of the Christian legends, based on the Roman methods. On portraying the careers of the Caesar’s several distinct climactic events where shown on separate panels.

*Another example are the earliest Gandhara Buddha’s, where Sakyamuni is portrayed with the head of a Greek Apollo and arrayed in a Roman toga. It is the same early representation of Christ which shows Him with the head of the Greek Sun-God but dressed in the garb of the teachers of the ancient Greek world.

*The most frequently used material by Gandharan artists was a soft indigenous schist that varied in color from light to dark gray, and often contained sparkling mica particles. Many of these statues were covered with gold leaf to give them a luster in dark interiors.

*The most popular media, however, became an easy-to-work material terracotta and stucco. Because of the fragility of the material most statues were supported by attaching them to walls, giving them the appearance of a three-dimensional relief. Stucco sculptures were given a final coat of gesso, which was then painted. The most frequent subjects were representations of Buddha, Bodhisattwas, and attending monks or donors.

*The Buddha images display a variety of ethnic types and expressions. The human head usually has appears with a perfect oval face, regular features, with almond-shaped and slightly protruding eyes, with gentle arching eyebrows, a straight nose, and beautifully cut lips with a subtle smile.

*The Buddha’s influence is evident in the half-closed eyes suggesting meditation. The face if often unbearded, but sometimes a mustache strikes a foreign note, most likely Kushan.

*The “usnisa” or cranial bump, a redestination the Buddha was born with, is usually seen in the form of the “chignon” a knot or a roll of hear wrapped in silk on the dome of Buddha’s head. The elongated ears indicate the heavy, rich jewelry the Buddha wore.

*The Kushans were able to establish a strong empire for a period of about three hundred years and produced works of art reflecting both indigenous traditions and external influences. The detection of Greek and Roman elements in the Gandharan School testifies to the active exchange of ideals among all the civilizations of the Classical and Central Asian worlds.

*The Gandhara School reached its peak toward the end of the second century with the production of the most significant large Buddha statues.

*Their style continued to flourish into the third century until after the Sasanian invasion, and continued until the seventh century in Afghanistan.

Q.11 Which among the following is involved in Tribhangi dance ?

1) Independent movement of head

2) Stamping of the foot

3) Independent movement of chest and pelvis

Codes:

A) 1 & 3

B) 2 & 3

C) 1 & 2

D) 1,2,3

Ans. D

Q.12 The main programme of the Red Shirts organised by Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan in support of the Civil Disobedience Movement was:

A) To proceed on the lines of terrorist & revolutionary activities

B) To proopagate the Congress programme

C) To resist the military operations of the govt in the north-western fronteir portion

D) To setup an para-military organization

Ans. B

The Civil Disobedience Movement led by M K Gandhi, in the year 1930 was an important milestone in the history of Indian Nationalism. The prevalent political and social circumstances played a vital role in the launching of the Civil Disobedience Movement. The Simon Commission was formed by the British Government that included solely the members of the British Parliament, in November 1927, to draft and formalize a constitution for India. The chairmanship of the commission rested with Sir John Simon, who was a well known lawyer and an English statesman. Accused of being an ‘All-White Commission’, the Simon Commission was rejected by all political and social segments of the country. In Bengal, the opposition to the Simon Commission assumed a massive scale, with a hartal being observed in all corners of the province on February 3rd, 1928. On the occasion of Simon’s arrival in the city, demonstrations were conducted in Calcutta. In the wake of the boycott of the recommendations proposed by Simon Commission, an All-Party Conference was organized in Bombay in May of 1928. Dr MA Ansari was the president of the conference. Motilal Nehru was given the responsibility to preside over the drafting committee, appointed at the conference to prepare a constitution for India. MK Gandhi was urged by the Congress to render his much needed leadership to the Civil Disobedience Movement. On the historic day of 12th March 1930, Gandhi inaugurated The Civil Disobedience Movement by conducting the historic Dandi Salt March, where he broke the Salt Laws imposed by the British Government. The two main clauses of the Gandhi-Irwin pact entailed : Congress participation in the Round Table Conference and cessation of The Civil Disobedience Movement.

Q.13 Who considered Sanchi to be a centre of tree and serpent worship ?

A) James Fergusson

B) James Princep

C) Marshman

D) Cunningham

Ans. A

Q.14 With reference to Kathakali, consider the following statements :

1) Square and rectangular basic positions are commonly seen in Kathakali

2) Weight of the body is on the outer edges of the feet which are slightly bent and curved

3) It is characterized by facial expressions , movement of eye balls & lower eye lids

Select the correct answer using the codes given below :

A) 1 & 3

B) 2 & 3

C) 1 & 2

D) 1,2,3

Ans. D

Introduction Kathakali is the most well known dance drama from the south Indian state of Kerala. The word Kathakali literally means “Story-Play”. It is known for its large, elaborate makeup and costumes. The elaborate costumes of Kathakali have become the most recognised icon for Kerala. The themes of the Kathakali are religious in nature. They typically deal with the Mahabarat, the Ramayana and the ancient scriptures known as the Puranas. This is performed in a text which is generally Sanskritised Malayalam. A Kathakali performance is a major social event. They generally start at dusk and go through out the night. Kathakali is usually performed only by men. Female characters are portrayed by men dressed in women’s costume. However, in recent years, women have started to become Kathakali dancers. Kathakali has a long tradition. It dates back to the 17th century. It was given its present form by Mahakavi Vallathol Narayan Menon, who was the founder of the Kerala Kala Mandalam. The actors rely very heavily on hand gesture to convey the story. These hand gestures, known as mudra, are common through out much of classical Indian dance. Costume The costume is the most distinctive characteristic of Kathakali. The makeup is very elaborate and the costumes are very large and heavy. There are several kinds of costume. There are: Sathwika (the hero), Kathi (the villain), Minukku (females), and Thatti. These basic divisions are further subdivided in a way which is very well known to Malayali (Keralite) audiences. Each character is instantly recognisable by their characteristic makeup and costume. The makeup is very elaborate. It is so elaborate that it is more like a mask than makeup in the usual sense. The materials that comprise the makeup is all locally available. The white is made from rice flour, the red is made from Vermilion (a red earth such as cinnabar). The black is made from soot. The colours are not merely decoration, but are also a means of portraying characters. For instance, red on the feet is used to symbolise evil character and evil intent. Music The music of Kathakali has some similarity to the larger body of South Indian classical music (Carnatic sangeet); however the instrumentation is decidedly different. Its local colour is strongly achieved by the use of instruments such as chenda, idakka, and shuddha madalam.

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