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Q.1 “Diversified cropping refers to system of multiple cropping rather than multiple cropping”, which of the following are the advantages of diversified cropping ?

1) It lowers the risk of farming on account of failure of monsoon

2) It enhances scope for commercialization of farming


A) Only 1

B) Only 2

C) Both are correct

D) Both are incorrect

Ans. C


Q.2 Which of the following are the objectives of the Organic farming ?

1) Discard use of non-renewable resources

2) Sustains soil fertility

3) It is labour-intensive process of production

4) Low yield


A) 1,3,4

B) 2,3,4

C) 1,2,3

D) 1,2,3,4

Ans. D


Q.3 In context with the Maiden Jullian Oscillation, which among the following are correct ?

1) It is evident over the Indian Ocean & Western equatorial pacific

2) It influences the global monsoon pattern

3) It is an eastward moving of cloud & rainfall near the equator

4) It is a feature of the tropical atmosphere


A) 1,3,4

B) 2,3,4

C) 1,2,3

D) 1,2,3,4

Ans. D


Q.4 In context with the Walker circulation, which among the following statements are correct ?

1) It results from the high pressure system over the eastern pacific ocean

2) When Walker circulation weakens it causes Ei-Nino while when it gets stronger it results in La-Nina


A) Only 1

B) Only 2

C) Both are correct

D) Both are incorrect

Ans. C


Q.5 Which among the following statements regarding United Nation Framework Convention on climate change is/are correct ?

1) It is a legally binding

2) It sets mandatory limits of green house gases emissions

3) It stabilizes green house gas concentrations


A) 1 & 3

B) Only 3

C) 2 & 3

D) Only 1

Ans. B

It is a legally binding while Kyoto Protocol is legally binding

It does not set mandatory limits of green house gases emissions


Q. 6 What could be the main reason /reasons for the formation of African and Eurasian desert belt ?

1. It is located in the sub-tropical high pressure cells.

2. It is under the influence of warm ocean currents.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct in this context ?

A)  1 only


B) 2 only


C) Both 1 and 2


D) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans. A

Hot deserts are located between 20°30° latitude in both the hemisphere on the western coast of the continents. They are also called Tropical Deserts. They are different from the mid latitude deserts and cold deserts, hot deserts are found in High pressure belts along the Tropics in the trade winds region. Distribution Of Hot Deserts: (i)Asia Thar desert and the Arabian Desert; (ii)Africa The Sahara and the Kalahari; (iii)N. America Lower California and Arizona states of USA; (iv)S. AmericaAtacama desert; (v)Australia The Great Australian desert. The Sahara desert of Africa is the biggest hot desert of the world. The Hot desert regions are located in the subtropical high pressure belts, which are not favourable regions for rainfall


Q.7 Which of the following pollutants are present in the Water pollution ?

1) Nitrates & Phosphates

2) Chloroform

3) fats

Which among above are correct ?

A) Only 1

B) 2 & 3

C) 1,2,3

D) 1 & 3

Ans. C

Contaminants may include organic and inorganic substances.

Organic water pollutants include:

•           Detergents

•           Disinfection by-products found in chemically disinfected drinking water, such as chloroform

•           Food processing waste, which can include oxygen-demanding substances, fats and grease

•           Insecticides and herbicides, a huge range of organohalides and other chemical compounds

•           Petroleum hydrocarbons, including fuels (gasoline, diesel fuel, jet fuels, and fuel oil) and lubricants (motor oil), and fuel combustionbyproducts, from stormwater runoff

•           Tree and bush debris from logging operations

•           Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), such as industrial solvents, from improper storage.

•           Chlorinated solvents, which are dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs), may fall to the bottom of reservoirs, since they don’t mix well with water and are denser.

•           Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs)

•           Trichloroethylene

•           Perchlorate

•           Various chemical compounds found in personal hygiene and cosmetic products

•           Drug pollution involving pharmaceutical drugs and their metabolites

Inorganic water pollutants include:

•           Acidity caused by industrial discharges (especially sulfur dioxide from power plants)

•           Ammonia from food processing waste

•           Chemical waste as industrial by-products

•           Fertilizers containing nutrients–nitrates and phosphates—which are found in stormwater runoff from agriculture, as well as commercial and residential use

•           Heavy metals from motor vehicles (via urban stormwater runoff)  and acid mine drainage

•           Silt (sediment) in runoff from construction sites, logging, slash and burn practices or land clearing sites.

Macroscopic pollution—large visible items polluting the water—may be termed “floatables” in an urban stormwater context, or marine debris when found on the open seas, and can include such items as:

•           Trash or garbage (e.g. paper, plastic, or food waste) discarded by people on the ground, along with accidental or intentional dumping of rubbish, that are washed by rainfall into storm drains and eventually discharged into surface waters

•           Nurdles, small ubiquitous waterborne plastic pellets

•           Shipwrecks, large derelict ships.


Q.8 Statements:

1) Western Hoolock Gibbon is found in Assam,Bangladesh and in Myanmar

2) Seahorses are mainly found in shallow tropical and temperate waters throughout the world, and live in sheltered areas such as seagrassbeds, estuaries, coral reefs, or mangroves


A) Only 1

B) Only 2

C) Both are correct

D) Both are incorrect

Ans. C

List of Endangered & Critically Endangered :

Critically Endangered


1.         White-bellied Heron (Ardea insignis)

2.         Great Indian Bustard (Ardeotis nigriceps)

3.         Forest Owlet (Athene blewitti)

4.         Baer’s Pochard (Aythya baeri)

5.         Spoon-billed Sandpiper (Eurynorhynchus pygmeus)

6.         Siberian Crane (Grus leucogeranus)

7.         White-rumped Vulture (Gyps bengalensis)

8.         Indian Vulture (Gyps indicus)

9.         Slender-billed Vulture (Gyps tenuirostris)

10.       Bengal Florican (Houbaropsis bengalensis)

11.       Himalayan Quail (Ophrysia superciliosa)

12.       Jerdon’s Courser (Rhinoptilus bitorquatus)

13.       Pink-headed Duck (Rhodonessa caryophyllacea)

14.       Red-headed Vulture (Sarcogyps calvus)

15.       Sociable Lapwing (Vanellus gregarius)


1.         Knifetooth sawfish (Anoxypristis cuspidata)

2.         Pondicherry shark (Carcharhinus hemiodon)

3.         Ganges shark (Glyphis gangeticus)

4.         Deccan labeo (Labeo potail)

5.         Largetooth sawfish (Pristis microdon)

6.         Longcomb sawfish (Pristis zijsron)


Reptiles and amphibians

1.         Northern river terrapin (Batagur baska)

2.         Red-crowned roofed turtle (Batagur kachuga)

3.         Leatherback sea turtle (Dermochelys coriacea)

4.         Hawksbill sea turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata)

5.         Ghats wart frog (Fejervarya murthii)

6.         Gharial (Gavialis gangeticus)

7.         Gundia Indian frog (Indirana gundia)

8.         Toad-skinned frog (Indirana phrynoderma)

9.         Charles Darwin’s frog (Ingerana charlesdarwini)

10.       Rao’s torrent frog (Micrixalus kottigeharensis)

11.       Amboli bush frog (Pseudophilautus amboli)

12.       White-spotted bush frog (Raorchestes chalazodes)

13.       Griet bush frog (Raorchestes griet)

14.       Munnar bush frog (Raorchestes munnarensis)

15.       Ponmudi bush frog (Raorchestes ponmudi)

16.       Sacred Grove bush frog (Raorchestes sanctisilvaticus)

17.       Shillong bubble-nest frog (Raorchestes shillongensis)

18.       Anaimalai flying frog (Rhacophorus pseudomalabaricus)


1.         Namdapha flying squirrel (Biswamoyopterus biswasi)

2.         Himalayan wolf (“Canis himalayensis”)

3.         Kashmir stag (Cervus canadensis hanglu)

4.         Elvira rat (Cremnomys elvira)

5.         Andaman shrew (Crocidura andamanensis)

6.         Jenkins’ shrew (Crocidura jenkinsi)

7.         Nicobar shrew (Crocidura nicobarica)

8.         Sumatran rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis)

9.         Kondana soft-furred rat (Millardia kondana)

10.       Pygmy hog (Porcula salvania)

11.       Javan rhinoceros (Rhinoceros sondaicus)

12.       Malabar large-spotted civet (Viverra civettina)

‘== Endangered == Other species listed by the IUCN As of 2012:


•           Asian arowana (Scleropages formosus)

•           Gangatic Dolphin


•           Narcondam Hornbill (Rhyticeros narcondami)


•           Olive Ridley Sea Turtle(Lepidochelys olivacea)


•           Asian black bear (Ursus thibetanus)

•           Asian elephant (Elephas maximus)

•           Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris)

•           Blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus)

•           Banteng (Bos javanicus)

•           Barasingha (Rucervus duvaucelii)

•           Clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa)

•           Central Kashmir vole (Alticola montosa)

•           Dhole (Cuon alpinus)

•           Dugong (Dugong dugon)

•           Fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus)

•           Four-horned antelope (Tetracerus quadricornis)

•           Gee’s golden langur (Trachypithecus geei)

•           Gaur (Bos gaurus)

•           Hispid hare (Caprolagus hispidus)

•           Hoolock gibbons (Hoolock spp.)

•           Lion-tailed macaque (Macaca silenus)

•           Markhor (Capra falconeri)

•           [Platypus]

•           Mandelli’s mouse-eared bat (Myotis sicarius)

•           Marbled cat (Pardofelis marmorata)

•           Nilgiri marten (Martes gwatkinsii)

•           Nicobar flying fox (Pteropus faunulus)

•           Nilgiri langur (Trachypithecus johnii)

•           Nilgiri tahr (Nilgiritragus hylocrius)

•           Nicobar treeshrew (Tupaia nicobarica)

•           Palm rat (Rattus palmarum)

•           Red panda (Ailurus fulgens)

•           Red goral (Naemorhedus baileyi)

•           Rusty-spotted cat (Prionailurus rubiginosus)

•           Snow leopard (Uncia uncia)

•           Smooth-coated otter (Lutrogale perspicillata)

•           Sei whale (Balaenoptera borealis)

•           Stump-tailed macaque (Macaca arctoides)

•           Sloth bear (Melursus ursinus)

•           Servant mouse (Mus famulus)

•           Sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus)

•           Ganges River dolphin (Platanista gangetica gangetica)

•           Swamp deer/Barasingh(“Rucervus duvaucelii”)

•           Takin (Budorcas taxicolor)

•           Tibetan antelope (Pantholops hodgsonii)

•           Wild water buffalo (Bubalus arnee)

•           Wild goat (Capra aegagrus)

•           Woolly flying squirrel (Eupetaurus cinereus)

•           Yak (Bos grunniens)


Q.9 Which among the following statements in context with the Contour bunding are correct ?

1)  It helps to capture and hold rainfall before it can become runoff

2) It helps in reducing soil erosion

3) It involves the placement of lines of stones along the natural rises of a landscape

4) It is one of the solution of desertification


A) 1,3,4

B) 2,3,4

C) 1,2,3

D) 1,2,3,4

Ans. D


Q.10 Production of which pollutant is reduced by use of CNG when a more green fuel HCNG is used ?

A) SO2 & CO

B) SO2 & CH4

C) CO & H2

D) NOx & CO2

Ans. A