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Endosulfan is an off-patent organochlorine insecticide and acaricide that

is being phased out globally. The two isomers, endo and exo, are known

popularly as I and II. Endosulfan sulfate is a product of oxidation

containing one extra O atom attached to the S atom. Endosulfan became a

highly controversial agrichemical due to its acute toxicity, potential for

bioaccumulation, and role as anendocrine disruptor. Because of its threats

to human health and the environment, a global ban on the manufacture and

use of endosulfan was negotiated under the Stockholm Convention in April

2011. The ban will take effect in mid-2012, with certain uses exempted for

five additional years. More than 80 countries, including the European

Union, Australia, New Zealand, several West African nations, the United

States. Brazil, and Canada had already banned it or announced phase-outs

by the time the Stockholm Convention ban was agreed upon. It is still used

extensively in India, China, and few other countries. It is produced

byMakhteshim Agan and several manufacturers in India and China.