21. Mercosur

• Mercosur is a sub-regional bloc.

• Its full members are Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay.

• Its associate countries are Bolivia, Chile, Peru, Colombia, Ecuador and Suriname, while the observer
countries are New Zealand and Mexico.

• The purpose of the bloc is to promote free trade and the fluid movement of goods, people and currency.

• The official languages of the bloc are Spanish, Portuguese and Guarani.

• The motto of the bloc is “Our North is the South.”

20. Citizenship Amendment Bill-2019 :

Citizenship Amendment Bill-2019 :

1. The Citizenship Amendment Bill, 2019 (CAB) will be granted citizenship of India to Hindu,
Christian, Sikh, Parsi, Jain, and Buddhist people who have fled from Pakistan, Afghanistan and
Bangladesh due to the religious persecution.

2. Such illegal migrants who have entered India by 31 December 2014 will be able to apply for Indian

3. Right now, it is compulsory to reside in India for 11 years to get Indian citizenship.

The new bill reduces the residency limit to six years.

4. The Citizenship Amendment Bill, 2019 covers 6 communities – Hindu, Jain, Sikh, Parsi, Buddhist,
and Christian migrants.

5. It has also been arranged that any legal action already taken against such people for s
displacement or illegal migration will not affect his eligibility for permanent citizenship.

6. If the OCI cardholders violate the conditions, the center will have the right to cancel their card.

7. This bill was introduced in Lok Sabha in 2016. It was passed in Lok Sabha this year but stuck in
the Rajya Sabha.

8. The Citizenship Amendment Bill was passed to amend the Citizenship Act, 1955.

9. It has been decided to give citizenship to people of other religions except Muslims in the new
bill. The Opposition is taking up this matter and saying it a biased bill.

10. The Ministry of Home Affairs has empowered the concerned authorities in Chhattisgarh, Gujarat,
Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, and Delhi to provide citizenship and natural
certificates to migrants under sections 5 and 6 of the Citizenship Act, 1955.